Doha Agreement, In the last article we discussed the historical background of the
The USA – Taliban Conflict. In this article, we will be discussing the peace process and its features along with its criticisms.
After months of negotiations, U.S. officials and Taliban representatives had
signed a final peace deal in Qatar’s capital. To end the US’s longest war, fought
in Afghanistan. The agreement was signed in Doha in the presence of leaders from Pakistan, India, Indonesia, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan.
With this, it has paved the way for the United States to gradually withdraw its
troops from Afghanistan.
PROVISIONS OF THE DEAL
Troops Withdrawal: The US will draw down to 8600 troops in 135 days and
NATO or coalition troop numbers also brought down, proportionately and
simultaneously. And all the troops will be out thin 14 months including “nondiplomatic civilian personnel” or “intelligence” personnel.
Taliban Commitment: Taliban’s main counter-terrorism commitment is that it will
not allow any of its members, other individuals or groups, including Al-Qaeda, to
use the soil of Afghanistan to threaten the security of the US and its allies. The
pact is silent on other terrorist groups like Lashkar-e-Toiba or Jaish-e-
Mohammed. India, not being a US ally is not covered under this pact.
Sanctions Removal: UN sanctions on Taliban leaders to be removed by 3
months and US sanctions by 27 August.
The pact says up to 5000 imprisoned Taliban and up to 1000 prisoners from “the other side” held by Taliban “will be released”.
The joint declaration says the US will facilitate discussion with Taliban representatives on confidence-building measures. This including determining the feasibility of releasing significant numbers of prisoners on both sides.
FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR DEAL
War Fatigue: Long drew out inconclusive war which US along with NATO partners have been fighting in the last 2 decades. The US had war fatigue due to the endless war since 2001.
Financial Aspect: That brings the total cost, based on official data to $822 billion since the war began in 2001. It however doesn’t include any spending in Pakistan, which the US uses as a base for Afghan-related operations.
Huge War Causalities: Since the war against the Taliban began in 2001, US forces have suffered more than 2300 deaths. Further, around 20,660 soldiers were injured in action.
Public Pressure: The US citizens don’t want any more wars further and there is huge pressure to disengage from wars.
Political Promise: US President Donald Trump in the 2016 election promised to draw a peace pact and bring US soldiers home.
CRITICISMS OF THE DEAL:
Side-Lining Afghan Government: The fundamental issue with the US’s Taliban
engagement is that it deliberately excluded the Afghan government because the
insurgents do not see the government as legitimate rulers. By giving in to the
Taliban’s demand, the US has practically called into question the legitimacy of
the government it backs.
Concessions to Taliban: Second, the US has made several concessions to the
Taliban in the agreement. The Taliban was not pressed enough to declare a
ceasefire. Both sides settled for a 7-day reduction of violence period before
signing the deal. The US with some 14000 troops in Afghanistan, has committed
to pulling them out in a phased manner. In return for the Taliban’s assurances
that it would sever ties with other terrorist groups and start talks with the Kabul
Human Rights: Taliban is well known for strict religious laws. Such as banishing
women from public life, shutting down schools, and unleashing systematic discrimination on religious and ethnic minorities. It has not made any promises
on whether it would respect civil liberties or accept the Afghan
Constitution. Shifting the Power to Taliban: The US withdrawal will invariably
weaken the Kabul government, altering the balance of power both on the
battlefield and at negotiating table. A weakened government will have to talk with a resurgent Taliban in Doha agreement. The US, in a desperate bid, to exit The Afghan war has practically abandoned the Kabul government and millions of Afghans who do not support the Taliban’s violent, tribal Islamism, at the mercy of
An independent, sovereign, democratic, pluralistic and inclusive Afghanistan is
crucial for peace and stability in the region. To ensure this:
1. The Afghan peace process means Afghan-led, Afghan-owned, and Afghan-controlled.
2. Also, there is a need for the global community to fight against the global concern of terrorism. In this context, it is high time to adopt the Comprehensive
Convention on International Terrorism (proposed by India at UN in 1996).
Though the deal Doha Agreement is a good step, the road ahead would not be easy. Achieving lasting peace in Afghanistan will require patience and compromise among all parties.
In the next article, we'll be discussing the impact of the withdrawal on Regional